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How to enhance or suppress memories

Erasing memories concept. Credit: © Andrea Danti / Adobe Stock What if scientists could manipulate your brain so that a traumatic memory lost its emotional power over your psyche? Steve Ramirez, a Boston University neuroscientist fascinated by memory, believes that a small structure in the brain could hold the keys to future therapeutic techniques for…

If you could learn every disease your child could possibly develop...

Genetic screening word cloud. Credit: © ibreakstock / Adobe Stock Newborn screening is required in the U.S. and differs slightly depending on which state you live in. For the most part, it's done before a newborn baby leaves the hospital and includes a blood test that screens for 30-50 serious health problems that usually arise…

Did Leonardo da Vinci have ADHD?

Statue of Leonardo da Vinci. Credit: © ArTo / Adobe Stock Leonardo da Vinci produced some of the world's most iconic art, but historical accounts show that he struggled to complete his works. 500 years after his death, King's College London researcher Professor Marco Catani suggests the best explanation for Leonardo's inability to finish projects…

How to enhance or suppress memories

Erasing memories concept. Credit: © Andrea Danti / Adobe Stock What if scientists could manipulate your brain so that a traumatic memory lost its emotional power over your psyche? Steve Ramirez, a Boston University neuroscientist fascinated by memory, believes that a small structure in the brain could hold the keys to future therapeutic techniques for…

Bipolar disorder may be linked to Parkinson’s disease

Bipolar disorder concept. Credit: © luisrsphoto / Adobe Stock People who have bipolar disorder may be more likely to later develop Parkinson's disease than people who do not have bipolar disorder, according at a study published in the May 22, 2019, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. "Previous…

Massive sequencing study links rare DNA alterations to type 2 diabetes

Test tubes (stock image). Credit: © SSandHELEN photoqraphers / Adobe Stock An international consortium of scientists has analyzed protein-coding genes from nearly 46,000 people, linking rare DNA alterations to type 2 diabetes. The study, one of the largest known of its type, includes data from people of European, African American, Hispanic/Latino, East Asian, and South…

Study identifies dog breeds, physical traits that pose highest risk of...

Beware-of-dog sign. Credit: © pyright Steve Gerig / Adobe Stock New research at The Ohio State University College of Medicine and The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center identifies dog breeds and physical traits that pose the highest risk of biting with severe injury. Doctors want parents of young children to use this information when…

Dawn-to-sunset fasting suggests potential new treatment for obesity-related conditions

Fasting concept. Credit: © sewcream / Adobe Stock Fasting from dawn to sunset for 30 days increased levels of proteins that play a crucial role in improving insulin resistance and protecting against the risks from a high-fat, high-sugar diet, according to research presented at Digestive Disease Week® (DDW) 2019. The study, which was based on…

Dietary cholesterol or egg consumption do not increase the risk of...

Soft-boiled egg. Credit: © aga7ta / Adobe Stock A new study from the University of Eastern Finland shows that a moderately high intake of dietary cholesterol or consumption of up to one egg per day is not associated with an elevated risk of stroke. Furthermore, no association was found in carriers of the APOE4 phenotype,…

Researchers unravel mechanisms that control cell size

Dividing cells illustration. Credit: © Kateryna_Kon / Adobe Stock Working with bacteria, a multidisciplinary team at the University of California San Diego has provided new insight into a longstanding question in science: What are the underlying mechanisms that control the size of cells? Nearly five years ago a team led by Suckjoon Jun, a biophysicist…

Scientists capture first-ever video of body’s safety test for T-cells

T cell illustration (stock image). Credit: © sveta / Adobe Stock For the first time, immunologists from The University of Texas at Austin have captured on video what happens when T-cells -- the contract killers of the immune system, responsible for wiping out bacteria and viruses -- undergo a type of assassin-training program before they…

How a member of a family of light-sensitive proteins adjusts skin...

Skin colors concept. Credit: © luaeva / Adobe Stock A team of Brown University researchers found that opsin 3 -- a protein closely related to rhodopsin, the protein that enables low-light vision -- has a role in adjusting the amount of pigment produced in human skin, a determinant of skin color. When humans spend time…

Dangerous pathogens use this sophisticated machinery to infect hosts

Pathogens illustration (stock image). Credit: © beawolf / Adobe Stock Gastric cancer, Q fever, Legionnaires' disease, whooping cough -- though the infectious bacteria that cause these dangerous diseases are each different, they all utilize the same molecular machinery to infect human cells. Bacteria use this machinery, called a Type IV secretion system (T4SS), to inject…

Brain’s insular cortex processes pain and drives learning from pain

Pain concept (touching cactus). Credit: © DragonImages / Adobe Stock Acute pain, e.g. hitting your leg against a sharp object, causes an abrupt, unpleasant feeling. In this way, we learn from painful experiences to avoid future harmful situations. This is called "threat learning" and helps animals and humans to survive. But which part of the…

Brain changes in autism traced to specific cell types

Autism concept. Credit: © Feng Yu / Adobe Stock Changes in gene activity in specific brain cells are associated with the severity of autism in children and young adults with the disorder, according to a UC San Francisco study of postmortem brain tissue. The study's new insights into how specific changes in gene expression contribute…

Natural compound found in broccoli reawakens the function of potent tumor...

Broccoli. Credit: © Cozine / Adobe Stock Your mother was right; broccoli is good for you. Long associated with decreased risk of cancer, broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables -- the family of plants that also includes cauliflower, cabbage, collard greens, Brussels sprouts and kale -- contain a molecule that inactivates a gene known to play…

Genomic collision may explain why many kidney transplants fail

Illustration of kidneys. Credit: © peterschreiber.media / Adobe Stock A genomic collision could explain why many kidney transplants fail, even when donors and recipients are thought to be well-matched, according to a new study from researchers at Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons. This genomic collision is a genetic incompatibility between kidney donor…

A new way of diagnosing and treating disease — without cutting...

Laser light (stock image). Credit: © ivanovevgeniy / Adobe Stock University of British Columbia researchers have developed a specialized microscope that has the potential ability to both diagnose diseases that include skin cancer and perform incredibly precise surgery -- all without cutting skin. The researchers describe the technology in a study published today in Science…

Brain researchers seek ‘fingerprints’ of severe mental diseases

Workings of the brain concept. Credit: © freshidea / Adobe Stock Researchers from McLean Hospital and Yale University have published findings of their study of large-scale systems in the brain, findings that could improve understanding of the symptoms and causes of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, depression, and other mental illnesses. Their paper, "Functional Connectomics of Affective…

A nerve cell serves as a ‘single’ for studies

Neuron illustration. Credit: © shumpc / Adobe Stock Nerve cells derived from human stem cells often serve as the basis for research into brain diseases. However, these cells differ considerably in their quality and produce varying results. Scientists around the world are therefore looking for simple cell models that lead to consistent results when an…

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