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What oil leaves behind in 2.5 billion gallons of water every day in US

A new Purdue University process uses activated charcoal foam and subjects it to solar light to produce heat and purify produced water. Credit: Purdue University/Ashreet Mishra About 2.5 billion gallons of produced water, a byproduct from the oil refinery and extraction process, is generated each day in the United States. Handling that water is a…

Making solar cells is like buttering bread

The 2D films based on 2-phenylethylammonium lead iodide produce 3D formamidinium lead iodide films via cation exchange. Credit: Loi lab / University of Groningen Formamidinium lead iodide is a very good material for photovoltaic cells, but getting the correct and stable crystal structure is a challenge. The techniques developed so far have produced rather poor…

New light on origins of modern humans

This is a map showing early African archaeological sites with evidence for symbolic material and microlithic stone tools. Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Image by Reto Stöckli Researchers from the University of Huddersfield, with colleagues from the University of Cambridge and the University of Minho in Braga, have been using a genetic approach to…

Fish-inspired material changes color using nanocolumns

Inspired by the flashing colors of the neon tetra fish, researchers have developed a technique for changing the color of a material by manipulating the orientation of nanostructured columns in the material. Credit: Zhiren Luo, NC State University Inspired by the flashing colors of the neon tetra fish, researchers have developed a technique for changing…

Arctic sea ice 2019 wintertime extent is seventh lowest

A big lead, or opening in the sea ice pack, in the eastern Beaufort Sea, as seen from a NASA Operation IceBridge survey flight on Apr. 14, 2018. Credit: NASA/Joe MacGrego Sea ice in the Arctic appears to have hit its annual maximum extent after growing through the fall and winter. The 2019 wintertime extent…

How does estrogen protect bones? Unraveling a pathway to menopausal bone loss

Estrogen induces osteocyte expression of Sema3A, which acts on its receptor on osteocytes to promote survival, resulting in reduced osteoclastic bone resorption and enhanced osteoblastic bone formation. Sema3A-activated sGC-cGMP signaling through Nrp1 protected osteocytes from apoptosis. Credit: Department of Cell Signaling,TMDU Researchers at Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) and The University of Tokyo find…

Paleontologists report world’s biggest Tyrannosaurus rex

The towering and battle-scarred 'Scotty' reported by UAlberta paleontologists is the world's largest Tyrannosaurus rex and the largest dinosaur skeleton ever found in Canada. Credit: Amanda Kelley University of Alberta paleontologists have just reported the world's biggest Tyrannosaurus rex and the largest dinosaur skeleton ever found in Canada. The 13-metre-long T. rex, nicknamed "Scotty," lived…

How electricity-eating microbes use electrons to fix carbon dioxide

A Washington University team showed how a phototrophic microbe called Rhodopseudomonas palustris takes up electrons from conductive substances like metal oxides or rust to reduce carbon dioxide. Credit: Image courtesy Bose laboratory, Washington University New research from Washington University in St. Louis explains the cellular processes that allow a sun-loving microbe to "eat" electricity --…

Ankle exoskeleton fits under clothes for potential broad adoption

The new ankle exoskeleton design integrates into the shoe and under clothing. Credit: Matthew Yandell A new lightweight, low-profile and inexpensive ankle exoskeleton could be widely used among elderly people, those with impaired lower-leg muscle strength and workers whose jobs require substantial walking or running. Developed by Vanderbilt mechanical engineers, the device is believed to…

Radioactive material detected remotely using laser-induced electron avalanche breakdown

With additional engineering, a new method to detect radioactive material, developed by physicists at the University of Maryland, could be scaled up to scan shipping containers at ports of entry--providing a powerful new tool for security applications. Credit: USDA/APHIS Physicists at the University of Maryland have developed a powerful new method to detect radioactive material.…

Highest energy density all-solid-state batteries now possible

High-energy-density all-solid-state lithium metal battery employing complex hydrides. Credit: Sangryun Kim and Shin-ichi Orimo Scientists from Tohoku University and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization have developed a new complex hydride lithium superionic conductor that could result in all-solid-state batteries with the highest energy density to date. The researchers say the new material, achieved by…

Researchers boost intensity of nanowire LEDs

Model of nanowire-based light-emitting diode showing that adding a bit of aluminum to the shell layer (black) directs all recombination of electrons and holes (spaces for electrons) into the nanowire core (multicolored region), producing intense light. Credit: NIST Nanowire gurus at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have made ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs)…

Chemicals induce dipoles to damp plasmons

Illustration shows the process of using dipoles induced by specific molecules to measure their damping effect on gold nanoparticle plasmons. Credit: Alese Pickering/Rice University The light scattered by plasmonic nanoparticles is useful, but some of it gets lost at the surface and scientists are now starting to figure out why. In novel experiments at Rice…

Energy monitor can find electrical failures before they happen

Photo shows the area on the Coast Guard cutter Spencer’s diesel engine where the MIT-developed “NILM Dashboard” detected damage that could have caused a fire. The damage was hidden under the brown cap at center. Credit: Image courtesy of the researchers A new system devised by researchers at MIT can monitor the behavior of all…

When neurons are out of shape, antidepressants may not work

These are human serotonergic neuron projections (red) and cell bodies (green). Credit: Salk Institute Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most commonly prescribed medication for major depressive disorder (MDD), yet scientists still do not understand why the treatment does not work in nearly thirty percent of patients with MDD. Now, Salk Institute researchers have…

A social bacterium with versatile habits

When food is scarce, individuals of the social soil bacterium M. xanthus cooperate to form yellow fruiting bodies. Credit: Copyright ETH Zurich/Gregory J. Velicer Many living systems share a fundamental capacity for cooperation. Plants and animals are made up of billions of cells that communicate with one another, carry out specific tasks and share their…

Jupiter’s unknown journey revealed

Jupiter was formed four times further from the sun than its current position would indicate, according to a new simulation. Credit: Illustration: NASA/JPL-Caltech It is known that gas giants around other stars are often located very near their sun. According to accepted theory, these gas planets were formed far away and subsequently migrated to an…

Citizen science programs provide valuable data on intermittent rivers in southwestern US

The ecological and hydrological data collected yearly from three rivers in Arizona map information on how to best manage water resources in a changing climate. Credit: University of Oklahoma A University of Oklahoma-led project is showing how citizen science programs provide valuable data on rivers in southwestern United States. The datasets of ecological and hydrological…

Colourful male fish have genes to thank for their enduring looks

Striking traits seen only in males of some species -- such as guppy fish -- are partly explained by gene behavior, scientists at the Universities of Edinburgh and Exeter have found. Credit: University of Exeter Striking traits seen only in males of some species -- such as colourful peacock feathers or butterfly wings -- are…

Squishing blood stem cells could facilitate harvest for transplants

How deformable cells are, and thus how stiff or squishy they are, plays an important role in retaining blood-forming stem cells in their marrow niches and thus preserving their long-term repopulation capabilities. Credit: From Ni et al Cell Stem Cell (2019) Scientists at Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and Georgia…

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