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Stickier than expected: Hydrogen binds to graphene in 10 femtoseconds

The hydrogen atom (blue) hits the graphene surface (black) and forms an ultra-fast bond with a carbon atom (red). The high energy of the impinging hydrogen atom is first absorbed by neighboring carbon atoms (orange and yellow) and then passed on to the graphene surface in form of a sound wave Credit: Oliver Bünermann /…

Research sparks new insights on laser welding

Inside NIST's laser welding booth, a high-power laser melts a piece of metal to form the letters "NIST." Credit: Paul Williams/NIST On its surface, the work is deceptively simple: Shoot a high-power laser beam onto a piece of metal for a fraction of a second and see what happens. But researchers say the physics of…

New inspection process freezes parts in ice

University of Cincinnati professor Francesco Simonetti developed a novel approach to inspecting manufactured parts that requires freezes them in ice. Credit: Corrie Stookey/CEAS Marketing "How on Earth did they make that?" asks Francesco Simonetti, commenting on an ice sculpture of a swan. Simonetti isn't admiring the artistry of shaping a block of ice into a…

Researchers ready B cells for novel cell therapy

Blue, yellow and red signals show engineered human B cells located in the bone marrow of mice. Credit: Seattle Children's Scientists at Seattle Children's Research Institute are paving the way to use gene-edited B cells -- a type of white blood cell in the immune system -- to treat a wide range of potential diseases…

How the immune system recognizes pathogens: Interaction Time

The use of light plays an important role for the researchers. Credit: Sascha Yousefi A team led by the Freiburg biologists Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Schamel and Prof. Dr. Wilfried Weber conducted an experiment in which they controlled the duration of the interaction of a specific protein with T cells, a type of white blood cells,…

Exploding electrical wires underwater to understand shock waves

Shock wave studies allow researchers to achieve the warm dense matter that's found only in the extreme conditions around stars and created in the laboratory for inertial confinement fusion research, and researchers in Israel recently set out to understand the relation, if any, between the evolution of a shock wave and the expansion of the…

Young frogs that were stressed as tadpoles move less on land, putting their survival...

Juvenile northern red-legged frogs raised in terrariums at Oregon State University. Credit: Photo by Evan Bredeweg, Oregon State University New Oregon State University research shows that juvenile northern red-legged frogs that have experienced climate-related stress as tadpoles are less likely to move on land, putting their survival at risk. The findings indicate changing patterns of…

Novel thermoelectric nanoantenna design for use in solar energy harvesting

I-V curves: (a) CDN - Ni-Pt, current in function of voltage (black line) and the electrical potential in 225 function of voltage (blue line). (b) EDN - Ni-Pt, current in function of voltage (black line) and the electrical 226 potential in function of voltage (blue line). Credit: Javier Mendez-Lozoya et al. In an article published…

Self-powered wearable tech

For emerging wearable tech to advance, it needs improved power sources. Now researchers from Michigan State University have provided a potential solution via crumpled carbon nanotube forests, or CNT forests. Credit: Courtesy of MSU For emerging wearable tech to advance, it needs improved power sources. Now researchers from Michigan State University have provided a potential…

Birds use social cues to make decisions

A zebra finch pair is inspecting a nest box. Credit: Hanja Brandl A new study in The Auk: Ornithological Advances suggests that some birds prioritize social information over visual evidence when making breeding choices. The quality of an environment can be difficult for a bird to assess and, therefore, continuously gathering information is a good…

What a dying star’s ashes tell us about the birth of our solar system

Billions of years ago, before our solar system was born, a dead star known as a white dwarf in a nearby binary star system accumulated enough material from its companion to cause it to 'go nova.' The stellar explosion forged dust grains with exotic compositions not found in our solar system. A team of researchers…

Ice feature on Saturn’s giant moon, TItan

This figure shows 3 orientations of Titan's globe. Mapped in blue is the icy corridor. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute Rain, seas and a surface of eroding organic material can be found both on Earth and on Saturn's largest moon, Titan. However, on Titan it is methane, not water, that fills the lakes with slushy raindrops.…

Disease-causing nibbling amoeba hides by displaying proteins from host cells

Entamoeba histolytica kills human cells through trogocytosis or "cell nibbling" where amoebae bite off and ingest fragments of human cells. UC Davis researchers Katherine Ralston, Hannah Miller and Rene Suleiman discovered that the amoebae use this process to acquire and display human cell membrane proteins on their own surface. This protects them from immune responses.…

Seagrass’ strong potential for curbing erosion

New research quantifies just how large and how dense a continuous meadow of seagrass must be to provide adequate damping of waves in a given geographic, climatic, and oceanographic setting. Credit: Courtesy of the researchers Most people's experience with seagrass, if any, amounts to little more than a tickle on their ankles while wading in…

Specialized plant cells regain stem-cell features to heal wounds

Confocal microscopy image of an Arabidopsis root tip with the cell cycle inducing gene ERF115 stained green. The expression of ERF115 is specific for the inner adjacent root cells, which undergo restorative cell divisions to generate daughter cells that eventually replace the wound (white patch). Credit: IST Austria/Lukas Hörmayer If plants are injured, cells adjacent…

Mental well-being predicts leisure time physical activity in midlife

Mental health supports physical activity in midlife. Credit: Petteri Kivimäki Men and women with high mental well-being at the age of 42 were more physically active at the age of 50 compared to those who got lower scores in mental well-being at age 42. Different exercise activities are related to the different dimensions of well-being…

Are coffee farms for the birds? Yes and no

Male turquoise cotinga, threatened with extinction. This is the only known instance of this bird being caught and banded. Credit: Cagan Sekercioglu/University of Utah Over 11 field seasons, between 1999 and 2010, ornithologist Cagan Sekercioglu trekked through the forests and coffee fields of Costa Rica to study how tropical birds were faring in a changing…

More than 100 years of data show Pennsylvania tick population shift

A "questing" female Ixodes scapularis (blacklegged tick) reaches out in hopes of climbing aboard a host. Researchers say the blacklegged tick, the primary vector of Lyme disease, was almost nonexistent in Pennsylvania in the 1960s but now is the state's dominant tick species. Credit: Joyce Sakamoto/Penn State The prevalence of the most abundant species of…

Dwarfs under dinosaur legs: 99-million-year-old millipede discovered in Burmese amber

The newly described millipede (Burmanopetalum inexpectatum) seen in amber. Credit: Leif Moritz Even though we are led to believe that during the Cretaceous the Earth used to be an exclusive home for fearsome giants, including carnivorous velociraptors and arthropods larger than a modern adult human, it turns out that there was still room for harmless…

Knit 1, purl 2: Assembly instructions for a robot?

A plush toy bunny can respond to touch using built in actuation tendons and sensors produced in a commercial knitting machine. The bunny is a demonstration of methods developed at Carnegie Mellon University for producing actuated knitted objects. Credit: Carnegie Mellon University Carnegie Mellon University researchers have used computationally controlled knitting machines to create plush…

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